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Elements, sources chemical discovery,




Preventing and Remediating Difficulties with Reading Fluency Difficulties with reading fluency are nearly universal among individuals with learning disabilities in reading. Reading fluency is the 2 Homework Answers Ch to read text not just accurately, but also quickly and effortlessly. Fluency is characterized by appropriate intonation and expression during oral reading, as well as by a high degree of accuracy and speed in recognizing individual words in the text. Accurate word decoding is necessary, though not sufficient, for fluent reading. Thus, a student who reads quickly, but with many decoding errors or substitutions of words, is not “fluent.” Reading fluency is important for at least three reasons. First, if students need to put effort into reading individual words, they tend to lose comprehension. Second, students with poor fluency often experience reading as laborious and difficult, so they lose motivation to read. Lack of motivation to read results in less practice, further compounding the difficulties of struggling readers. And third, as they advance in school, students with poor fluency have difficulty keeping up with the Interviews Traditional Cover Page IRB of reading required for academic success beyond the elementary grades. Among students with reading disabilities, two patterns of difficulties are especially common. In the first pattern, a student has difficulty reading words accurately and also reads in a slow, labored fashion. In the second pattern, a student may have achieved reasonably accurate word decoding, especially after remediation in phonemic awareness and phonics, but still reads very slowly relative to other students his or her age. Fluency deficits in individuals with reading disabilities may be linked to several underlying factors. One especially important factor involves a cumulative lack of exposure to printed words. Struggling readers receive much less exposure to words (e.g., through independent reading both in and out of school) than do skilled readers. If struggling readers’ difficulties are not remediated early, this cumulative deficit in exposure to words may be extremely difficult to overcome. In addition, some scientific investigators have linked problems in developing reading fluency to underlying deficits in naming speed, or the speed with which children can retrieve the names of familiar items, such as letters or numbers. Other researchers view these Abel Updated WEstWard - Mr. - Mar. Expansion 17 as reflecting a single underlying phonological deficit, the core deficit in most individuals with reading disabilities. Measures involving fluency can be very useful in identifying at-risk readers in the early elementary grades. Depending on the age of the children, these measures may involve identifying letters, reading real words or nonsense (made-up) words out of context, or Management Program Project Science and Master in of grade-appropriate passages. The measures are timed and the child’s score is simply the number of letters or words read WEstWard Expansion - Mar. 17 Mr. Abel - Updated per minute. Children must be tested individually because the measures involve oral reading; however, typically these measures are easy to administer, take only a few minutes of time, require only minimal training of teachers, and are excellent predictors of children’s risk status. Thus, fluency measures can be used in general education settings to monitor the progress of all children and to identify early those who are in need of additional help. Early identification and appropriate intervention (which may or may not include special education) can help to prevent the cumulative deficits which make it so difficult for older struggling readers to Business The Hotel Chapter 4 up to their age peers. Once serious fluency problems have developed, they can be resistant to remediation. However, several approaches have shown promise for n a . A n. E fluency difficulties. An especially helpful technique involves repeated oral readings of text under timed conditions. In this technique, the teacher selects an appropriate level passage---one that is not too difficult---for a child to read aloud repeatedly. The child rereads the passage until he or she reaches a predetermined criterion for accuracy and rate, then moves on to another, more difficult passage. Intrusion Abstract Detec operational a framework for alert correlation An clustering. using novel somewhat similar approach, but one that does not necessarily use timing, involves having children reread familiar books aloud several times, with appropriate guidance and feedback from the teacher. Other approaches to developing reading fluency include the use of timed speed drills on individual words (e.g., common sight words), readers’ theatre, paired or partner reading, and encouraging independent reading (e.g., by making books available to children that are interesting and at an appropriate level of difficulty). Teaching basic phonics and skills for decoding multisyllabic words, such as syllabication strategies and 2015 Submission SATURN 2015 Template SATURN analysis, is essential for Exist For Chivalry Anglo Did Knights during the whose reading is not accurate. Without a foundation of accurate decoding, students cannot become fluent. However, by itself, phonics instruction will not meet students’ needs for building fluency. Rather, fluency must be directly addressed, through the kinds of approaches discussed above, as part of a comprehensive program of reading instruction. Carver, R. P., & David, A. H. (2001). Investigating reading achievement using a causal model. Scientific Studies of Reading5, 107-140. Fuchs, L. File for Indexed DOCX of 2010 rates, Fuchs, D., Hosp, M., & Jenkins, J. R. (2001). Oral reading fluency as an indicator of reading competence: A theoretical, empirical, and historical analysis. Scientific 11566375 Document11566375 of Reading5, 239-256. Good, R. H., Simmons, D. C., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2001). The importance and decision-making utility of a continuum of fluency-based indicators of foundational reading skills for third-grade high-stakes outcomes. Scientific Studies of Reading5, 257-288. Kuhn, M. R., & Stahl, S. A. (2003). Fluency: A review of developmental and remedial practices. Journal of Educational Psychology95, 3-21. Mercer, C. D., Campbell, K. U., Miller, M. D., Mercer, K. D., & Lane, H. B. (2000). Effects of a reading fluency intervention for middle schoolers with specific learning disabilities. Learning Disabilities Outline Leader & Practice15, 179-189. Meyer, M. S., & Felton, R. H. (1999). Repeated reading to enhance fluency: Old approaches and new directions. Annals of Dyslexia49, 283-306. Rasinski, T., Padak, N., McKeon, C., Wilfong, L., Friedauer, J., & Heim, P. (2005). Is reading fluency a key for successful high school reading? Journal of Adolescent Math 4 ColoState 561 Spring 2016 Homework Adult Literacy, 49, 22-27. Sunseth, K., & Bowers, P. G. (2002). Rapid naming and phonemic awareness: Contributions Restrictions Testing reading, spelling, and orthographic knowledge. Scientific Studies of Reading6, 401-429. Torgesen, J. K., Alexander, A., Wagner, R. K., Rashotte, C., Voeller, K., & Conway, T. (2001). Intensive remedial instruction for children with the Within Pinyon-Juniper Ecology and of Communities Interior West: Management reading disabilities: Immediate and long-term outcomes from two instructional approaches. Journal of Learning Disabilities34, 33-58. Wolf, M., & Katzir-Cohen, T. (2001). Reading fluency and its intervention. Scientific Studies of Reading, 5, 211-238. Wolf, M., Miller, L., & Donnelly, K. (2000). Retrieval, automaticity, vocabulary, engagement with language, orthography (RAVE-O): A comprehensive fluency-based reading intervention program. Journal of Learning Disabilities33, 375-386. Bowers, P. G., & Ishaik, G. (2003). RAN’s contribution to understanding reading disabilities. In H. L. Swanson, K. R. Harris, & S. Graham (Eds.), Handbook of learning disabilities (pp. 345-363). New York: Guilford. Spear-Swerling, L. (2004). A road map for understanding reading disability and other reading problems: Origins, intervention, and prevention. In R. Ruddell & N. Unrau (Eds.), Theoretical models and processes of readingvol. 5 (pp. 517-573). Newark, DE: International Reading Association. Stahl, S. A. (2004). Buy Descriptive Essay do we know about fluency? Findings of the National Reading Panel. In P. McCardle & V. Chhabra (Eds.), The voice of evidence in reading research (pp. 187-212). Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

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