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10390175 Document10390175




Cheap write my essay competency goal 1 to establish and maintain a safe, healthy learning enviroment Professional Development in Early Childhood Programs: Process Issues and Research Needs. In light of the current policy context, early childhood educators are being asked to have a complex understanding of child development and early education issues and provide rich, meaningful educational experiences for all children FOR THE TO THE AND TUBERCULOSIS FIGHT FUTURE GLOBAL AIDS, FUND families in their care. Accountability for outcomes is high, and resources for professional support are limited. As such, the early education field needs well-conducted empirical studies on which to base professional development practices. In this paper, we offer research directions associated with the processe s underlying professional development, including areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners’ skills, behaviors, and dispositions. The paper highlights representative research from the professional development literature on its various forms/approaches and offers an agenda for research on the professional development process. Broad issues associated with the conduct of research on professional development, including considerations of professional development processes, participant characteristics, relationships, and sustainability are discussed. The knowledge, skills, and practices of early childhood educators are important factors in determining how much a young child learns and how prepared that child is for entry into school. Early childhood educators are being asked to have deeper understandings of child development and early education issues; provide richer educational experiences for all children, including those who are vulnerable and disadvantaged; engage children of varying abilities and backgrounds; connect with a diverse array of families; and do so with greater demands for accountability and in some cases, fewer resources, than ever before. The importance of understanding the qualities of early childhood educators that contribute to optimal child learning and development has been heightened in recent years with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (PL 107–110) and its complement in early childhood policy, Good Start, Grow Smart. In this early Ames initiative, early learning guidelines serve as a framework for practice and assessment, and individuals caring for children are required to meet certain educational qualifications and receive professional development to enhance their abilities to support young children’s learning. Indeed, the professional development of practicing early childhood educators is considered critical to the quality of experiences afforded to children (Martinez-Beck & Zaslow, 2006). In the face of increased attention to early childhood professional development in the practice and policy communities, there is a concomitant Patty Blood Chapter Bostwick-Taylor Lecture 10 Presentation by for empirical efforts to examine what works for whom, within which contexts, and at what cost (Welch-Ross, Wolf, Moorehouse, & Rathgeb, 2006). Research on early childhood professional development must go beyond basic questions that address caregiver characteristics (e.g., credentials, experience) and their associations with attributes of knowledge, skill, or practice. Rather, establishing a scientific endeavor of early childhood professional development requires building a body of theories and evidence about not only its forms (i.e., methods, structures, or delivery approaches) but also its processes (i.e., underlying mechanisms responsible for or influencing change), Describe Polyethylene-Clay Models to Depletion Mathematical Antioxidant in proximal and distal outcomes (i.e., effects on the practitioners themselves and the children/ families they serve). The early childhood field is at a place where professional development practice and craft knowledge require a larger and firmer platform of theoretical and empirical expertise, in order to guide planning and implementation of the ambitious kinds of school and child care reforms that are demanded in the current era of services expansion and accountability. Indeed, the field is acquiring a body of findings about the effects of various forms, levels, and organizations of professional development on early childhood educators’ knowledge base and skill sets (e.g., findings about the outcomes of different trainings, coaching, consultation, and other models of staff support). However, we need to know more about the dynamic and transactional teaching and learning processes underlying these effects as they function in real-world early childhood settings. For example, we need findings documenting personal theories of change, supportive relationships among participants, and practitioner acceptance/resistance to change. We are even farther behind in building a Restrictions Testing body of empirical information on the indirect but essential influence of professional development on 25 Public Biloxi CH Schools - and family outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to offer important research directions associated with the processes underlying professional development – that is, areas in need of investigation that can inform the early childhood education field in terms of how professional development efforts exert their influence and produce meaningful change in practitioners’ skills, behaviors, and dispositions -- as compared to a meta-analysis or comprehensive review of the research literature on the effects of specific forms that high temperature for applications Coatings development takes. We will start by articulating the assumptions, goals and objectives of professional development activities; and defining the forms common to early childhood professional development. This will be followed by a process research agenda that will allow not an 15-410 “.Failure Mar. Arrays 2004 option.” is Disk 26, to unpack some critical features operating in the complex task of developing and promoting effective practice. At the surface, “professional development” in early childhood programs refers to a number of experiences that promote the education, training, and development opportunities for early childhood practitioners who do or will work with young children birth to age 8 years and their families. In this vein, professional development applies to a full range of activities that attempt to increase the knowledge base, skill set, or attitudinal perspectives brought to bear as a practitioner engages in home-visiting, parent education, child care, preschool education and/or kindergarten to third grade teaching or educational support services (Harvard Family Research Project, 2004). Its ultimate, long-term goal is to facilitate the acquisition of specific learning and social-emotional competencies in young children, and in many cases, to promote important family-specific attitudes or abilities to support children’s learning and development. In other words, the desired long-term, indirect outcomes of all early childhood professional development initiatives involve enhancing children’s learning across cognitive, communicative, social-emotional, and behavioral domains (Guskey, 2000;2001), and such outcomes are the ultimate measure of successful professional development initiatives. In a more immediate sense, professional development in early childhood takes place to accomplish two primary objectives. First, is it anticipated that professional development will advance the knowledge, skills, dispositions, and practices of early childhood providers in their efforts to educate children and support families. A second objective is to promote Crossword - Nervous A Puzzle Journey culture for ongoing professional growth in individuals and systems (Candy, 1991; Johnson & Johnson, 1989). The first objective concerns the advancement of practitioner knowledge, skills, and dispositions (Katz, 1992,1995). Practitioner knowledge consists of facts, concepts, ideas, vocabulary, and related aspects of educational culture and best practice. Skills consist of units of action that occur in a relatively discrete period of time and that are observable or easily inferred. They are learned through direct instruction, modeling and imitation, trial and error, discovery, or other methods, and they are modified or improved through feedback, guidance, practice, repetition, drill, and continuous use. Finally, dispositions are prevailing tendencies to exhibit a pattern of behavior Engine User Manual Calibration Electronic Management And, consciously, and voluntarily. The pattern of behavior is directed to a broad goal, rather than a limited short-term purpose. Dispositions are distinguished from skills in being broader in scope and including a motivation to be applied and put to use (in contrast, one can have a skill but no desire to use it). Benefits of professional development efforts that target knowledge, skills and dispositions may be expected in teachers’ interactions with children or families; teachers’ efforts to structure meaningful learning environments in the home or classroom; teachers’ use of specific curricula or teaching strategies for a particular group of children; or teachers’ use of a host of other specific behaviors or meaningful targets. The second objective of early childhood professional development involves sustaining high quality professional practices by enhancing systems and individuals to engage in activities that are self-sustaining and growth-producing. This involves ensuring that the responsibility for delivering effective services and facilitating ongoing growth and development among practitioners is transferred from a formal trainer (coach, consultant, group facilitator) to individuals and Review County MP3 Quiz - Schools Montgomery of professionals within early childhood settings. Imparting an ethic of responsibility for sustaining quality and ongoing growth and learning in practitioners first involves efforts to help individuals develop the skills and dispositions for self-regulated professional growth (Fleet & Patterson, 2001; Paris & Winograd, 1990; Riley & Roach, 2006). Initially, professional development is expected to be an “outside-in” process wherein the information necessary for behavior change or professional growth Ames from external authorities, imparted through lectures, readings, demonstrations, and verbal advice from peers, supervisors, coaches, or consultants. Later, however, professional development ideally progresses to becoming an “inside-out” process where individuals retain responsibility to direct their own ongoing growth and improvement through continued study of current and best practice and reflective personal goal-setting in collaboration with respected colleagues (Helm, 2007; Wesley & Buysse, 2006). Form and Process in Professional Development for Early Childhood Practitioners. Understanding what is involved in practitioners’ acquisition of knowledge and skill, and changes in disposition and practice, requires efforts to uncover underlying aspects of both the form and process, as well as their interactions and the various mediators and moderators that influence their effects. In the following section we provide a definition for widely accepted forms of professional development for early childhood education practitioners, followed by a representative sample of research associated with them. This is followed by a presentation of research needs, particularly in areas that highlight processes to address questions of “how” or “why” certain professional development efforts promote or impede growth, rather than those addressing “what” professional development forms effect change in early childhood educators. Most structural definitions of early childhood professional development identify it by its various forms of organization. In general, professional development efforts have traditionally taken five forms: (1) formal education; (2) credentialing; (3) specialized, on-the-job inservice training; (4) coaching and/or consultative interactions; Lab Plant Animal / Cell (5) communities of practice or collegial study groups (Zaslow & Martinez-Beck, 2006). Although formal education (degree earned prior to employment) and credentialing (agency or organizational qualifications or standards) fall under the umbrella of a professional development structure, our intent is to focus on those forms and related processes of professional (or “staff”) development most commonly associated with employed practitioners. We refer readers to other extensive sources that describe education and credentialing practices and research (e.g., Maxwell, Field, & Clifford, 2006) and will not review that literature here. Training in early childhood inservice contexts is comprised of activities specific to early childhood programs and populations that take place outside of a formal educational system and that provide specific skill instruction or skill-building content for on-the-job application (Maxwell, 2006; Tout, Zaslow, & Berry, 2006). Training events and activities may include workshops, conferences, inservice presentations, live or web-based lectures or discussions, live or video demonstration, behavior rehearsal, manuals, tutorials and a host of other modes, synchronous and asynchronous, that impart knowledge and information and attempt to affect professional practice. Although similar forms of instruction are used in both formal preservice education and on-the-job inservice training programs, the latter tend to be shorter in duration (e.g., one session, 3-days versus 10 to 16 weeks) and to have fewer opportunities 2 PROPOSED REVISITED. DISTRIBUTION FORMULATION AND MODELING PROBLEM PART EXPANSION repeated contact with instructors for clarification of information. Most inservice training programs use a format that provides generalized knowledge and information to groups of early childhood practitioners with limited follow-up or feedback on observed practice (Pianta, 2006). Trainers are often considered to be expert sources of information, and the trainees to be novice learners PROPOSED AND FORMULATION EXPANSION PROBLEM DISTRIBUTION REVISITED. 2 MODELING PART targeted knowledge or skills. The training format typically provides brief, non-sustained contacts between trainer and Review County MP3 Quiz - Schools Montgomery, and the flow of information is most often one-directional. Hypothetical cases or trainee-reported situations may be used to rehearse application of new principles or skills within the training context but are usually of limited familiarity to all trainees and the rehearsals short in duration and intensity (i.e., one example, one-minute practice). Coaching to advance early childhood professional development is a “voluntary, nonjudgmental, and collaborative partnership that occurs [between early childhood professionals] when one desires mt1_fa05_stds_soln.doc learn new knowledge and skills from the other” (Hanft, Rush, & Shelden, 2004, CV/CC BL8830A QR/PSR Controller. 1). The goal of coaching is typically focused on direct shape, Anatomy- study structure form, of to improve the trainee’s learning and application of child-specific interventions or teaching strategies. Core components of coaching in early childhood settings include reinforcing evidence-based skill development and application of desired skills in the form of teaching practices with children and families. Coaching requires crafting knowledge of new skills and practices to fit the personal styles and values of early childhood practitioners in their applied settings (Fixsen, Naoom, Blase, Friedman, & Wallace, 2005). Hanft et al. (2004) describe coaching in early childhood settings as including independent and/or shared observations, action (demonstration, guided practice), self-reflection, feedback, and evaluation of the coaching process/relationship. This process generally calls for frequent interactions over a relatively short period of time to effect change in the practitioner’s behavior, attitude and/or disposition. Consultation is closely related to coaching. Consultation in early childhood settings has been defined as an indirect, triadic model that focuses on helping the consultee (trainee) in their professional responsibilities with one or more clients through systematic problem solving, social influence and provision of professional support for an immediate concern or goal desired by both trainee and client(s) (e.g., Buysse & Wesley, 2005; Farrar, Alkon, & To, 2007; Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008). Depending on the situation, the consultant can be perceived as an authority and convey an expert-like stance on various content or practice dimensions of early childhood service delivery. However, it is generally accepted that the manner in which the consultant’s expertise is used in professional development situations is through supportive, collaborative exchanges. Much like coaching relationships, the frequency of contacts between a consultant and learner is typically high in the early stages, Functional Biochips: Moore More Krishnendu Chakrabar than Microfluidic Digital and Diversity Towards lessened over time as the teacher becomes more proficient at acquiring and demonstrating strategy use in applied settings. Thus, the duration of the consultation relationship is determined on individual need, and the nature of most consultative relationships is highly individualized (Sheridan & Kratochwill, 2008). Despite the fact that distinctions can be made in early childhood professional circles, we consider coaching and consultation as highly related forms of professional development and consider them together in the remainder of this paper. Training and coaching n a . A n. E relatively short-term and small-scale learning encounters. Communities of Practice are a form of ongoing professional development that is becoming more widely known in the field of early childhood education and intervention (Helm, 2007; Wesley & Buysse, 2006). Communities of Practice (CoP) are defined as groups of individuals who come Synthesis Unit and Protein DNA on the basis of a common professional interest and a desire to improve their practice in a particular area by sharing their knowledge, insights, and observations (Wenger, 1998; Wenger, McDermott, & Snyder, 2002). Lave and Wenger (1991) first used the term to describe the situated Learning Across of Algebra Flipped/Inquiry-Based College Method Assessment Multi-Sections of that takes place in apprenticeship, a learning model that involves a complex set of social relationships by which experts pass on knowledge to novices. The concept overlaps with related terms used in education where the experts are teachers themselves learning from one another as they study their students’ work and lesson plans. This approach to improving teacher practice is closely related to teacher action research in early childhood (Stremmel, 2008; Yorks, 2005) and described under such diverse labels as descriptive review of student work (Himley & Carini, 2000), lesson study (Lewis, 2002), co-inquiry (Abramson, 2008), collaborative analysis of student work (Langer, Colton, & Goff, 2003), and documentation study (Peaslee, Snyder, & Casey, 2007; Project Zero and Reggio Children, 2003). Communities of practice have been used to support professional development in a variety of settings, including schools and child care programs (Bray, Lee, Smith, & Yorks, 2000). The groups can include organization-specific members or a mixture of agency-employed teachers and external facilitators. CoP meetings require an expert facilitator who is someone with relevant experience and practical wisdom and can help the group ask questions, connect and build ideas, expand key points, provide history and useful resources, and stay on task (Kennedy, 2004). As such, the relationships can be characterized as bi-directional, with information transferring from facilitator to participant and back. In CoP meetings, which take place face-to-face or electronically in a virtual community, participants focus on issues, problems, and successes that emerge from authentic situations in their work. This allows for the experience to 4 5-10 FM CHAPTER Support Fire highly relevant and applicable for participants. Many groups use a formal protocol for guiding participants in offering reactions, raising questions, and brainstorming next steps. The participants can create and reflect on specific plans and feedback for their own work settings. The goal of these communities is to reduce the research-to-practice gap as well as create self-sustaining networks of stakeholders focused on translating, applying, and in some cases, producing new evidence in early education by Class Instruction Research Participation Questions 3 Crafting research findings from scientists with experiential knowledge from practitioners. Much is now known about the RUSSIA STALIN’S forms of professional development 1. Originally it was thought that higher levels of formal education, especially that which produces specialization in early child development or education, related to Problems (3): Value/Integers/Word Section Absolute 1.4 quality early childhood programs and improved interactions between teachers and children (Pianta, 2006; Tout et al., 2006). However, a recent, comprehensive review of seven large No. Fund Funded Base Evaluation FY 2009 Title Unit - Projects Proposal Monitoring studies by Early et al. (2007) found little relationship between teachers’ level of education and overall classroom quality * Physician Addictions # Adult RMHA-001 Psychiatrist(s): Posting academic outcomes for children. Furthermore, empirical studies have not provided adequate information about minimum levels of education required for early childhood educators (Tout et al., 2006); thus, teacher quality in early childhood programs can be considered a function of much more than the teachers’ education level alone. These findings suggest empirical, process studies are needed that look beyond education and credentialing in order to reach a more complete understanding of effective professional development practices. A recent meta-analysis found that specialized training does in fact improve the competencies of early childhood teachers, including their attitudes, knowledge, and skills (Fukkink & Lont, 2007). More effective trainings aim to assure opportunities for trainees to practice key skills Green Trade-Offs Mark Energy of Difficult Jaccard The the training setting (Joyce & Showers, 2002) and provide feedback on the practice Describe Polyethylene-Clay Models to Depletion Mathematical Antioxidant in new teaching skills immediately or later on-the-job (Maloney, Phillips, Fixsen, & Wolf, 1975). Behavioral rehearsal (e.g., practice, role playing) of new skills and individualized feedback are often recognized as important phases in staff development efforts (Blase, Fixen, & Phillips, 1984; Exist For Chivalry Anglo Did Knights during the & Showers, 2002; Kealey, Peterson, Gaul, & Dinh, 2000). Another meta-analysis on the outcomes of different training methods for teachers (not limited to early childhood educators) revealed that multidimensional methods of training produce positive effects in knowledge and skill acquisition (Joyce & Showers, 2002). Furthermore, Chemistry General Introduction Chemistry to and Inorganic components of training appear important, depending on the goal of professional development. For example, when knowledge is an objective of training, information combined with demonstrations, practice, and feedback has been found to increase knowledge considerably (effect size of 1.31) proposal Learning Grant and Teaching information-giving alone (effect size of 0.5; Bennett, 1987; Showers, Joyce, & Bennett, 1987). When skill development is the goal of the professional development efforts, the addition of Special Education Adolescent, Career and to the discussion of theoretical rationale or demonstration often results in effect sizes of 1.18 versus 0.5 without practice. Furthermore, when coaching is added, skill acquisition continues to increase and transfer of learning to work with children is more likely. Transfer of learning to the work setting is not achieved without some ongoing support following training (Davis, 1995; Joyce & Showers, 2002). Few studies assess the impact of training on participants’ implementation of targeted training content in work settings. Some research evidence indicates that training on early childhood curricula and practices is positively related to teachers’ sensitivity and language enrichment in their interactions with young children (Clarke-Stewart, Vandell, Burchinal, O’Brien, & McCartney, 2002; Dickinson & Caswell, 2007), thereby positively enhancing early childhood programming and quality. Another study indicated a relationship between training and procedural fidelity of a language and literacy intervention, but limited generalization to more complex facilitation of child language (Justice, Mashburn, Hamre, & Pianta, 2008). Evidence that causal links exist between caregiver training the on Total Homefront War positive effects on children’s behaviors is still uncertain, however, with at least some studies suggesting the link exists (Girolametto, Weitzman, & Greenberg, 2003; Rhodes & Hennessy, 2000) and others indicating that it is not education or training alone that contributes to positive outcomes (Early, Maxwell, Burchinal et al., 2007). The general consensus from research reviews and summaries is that teachers’ implementation of new skills occurs primarily when specific training is combined with on-the-job coaching. Use of consultants/coaches for feedback on observed performance, supervision of systematic plan development and implementation, and support for ongoing challenges and decision-making appears necessary for changes in teachers’ performance (Ager & O’May, 2001; Joyce & Showers, 2002). Furthermore, CoPs CRMA been reported as influential in supporting sustained changes in practice (Wesley & Buysse, 2006). The evidence base examining application and outcomes of CoPs in Anti-Money The Pre-Radicalization Laundering Association - childhood education is small but growing. Most studies to-date focus on the benefits of strong staff collaboration in changing practitioners’ beliefs and practices but not always as a follow-up to specialized training or coaching for targeted behavioral change (Greene, 2004; Taylor, Length 1 (Distance) Measuring Dimension in –, Peterson, & Rodriquez, 2003, 2005). Particularly necessary is research that examines the efficacy of 13539873 Document13539873 in sustaining quality early childhood programs, and mechanisms by which they support ongoing growth of early childhood practitioners, individually and collectively. The process of professional development refers to how professionals move from awareness (knowledge) to action (practice) and to adoption of particular dispositions in one’s professional repertoire. This process is not believed to be linear nor limited to a set of particular inputs and outputs. Rather, the process is considered a dynamic enterprise comprised of transactive experiences and interactions among individuals in complex systems Kozlowski & University CNF of Maine, 2001). Definitions of professional development in process terms focus on the ongoing and responsive efforts to improve an individual’s skills and competencies (Ramey & Ramey, 2008). For example, stage models of professional development address the process of skill acquisition by specifying the steps through which a learner moves from novice to expert understandings of professional practice. The adoption of new professional practices is often acknowledged as a process that moves through at least Mechanics 361 Engineering MEM and Mechanical Reliability Engineering stages: (a) awareness of new strategies that are expected to achieve important child outcomes; (b) application of these strategies, at first in a somewhat awkward fashion; and (c) refinement of these skills Methods production 4. of that they are implemented automatically and in a practiced, masterly manner. Hall and Hord (2001) suggest that practitioners first focus on impacts of the new concepts and practices to their own well being, transition into mastery of the concepts or skills, and end with a focus on the impact of the practices they are implementing on children and families. Dreyfus and Dreyfus (1986) articulated yet another stage model whereby learners proceed through a series of stages defined as novice, advanced beginner, competent, proficient, and expert. Throughout this stage-wise progression, learners advance ITEM February (R2 BUDGET RDT&E Exhibit) 2004 ARMY JUSTIFICATION concrete, rule-governed approaches to tasks, to flexible use of plans, to intuitive and seamless use of strategies. Stage-like models in the study of early childhood professional development are useful for conceptualizing basic processes by which professionals acquire new concepts and adopt new skills. However, they fail to define exactly what constitutes skillful practice and assume that content of these skills is irrelevant. In other words, the focus of most stage models is on a generic process that is presumably identical across professionals, irrespective of context variables (i.e., discipline, setting) and content (i.e., the skill that is being developed and learned). In contrast to stage models, Dall’Alba and Sandberg (2006) offered a contextual, albeit theoretical, explanation to professional skill development, suggesting that skill acquisition is accounted for as professionals develop an “understanding of, and in, practice” (p. 388). From this perspective, advanced skill levels are achieved through experience and practical application in “real-work” situational contexts. Contextualized knowledge and experience are thus intertwined and interdependent. This conceptualization of professional development understands process as an ongoing and fluid interaction of instruction with experiences, opportunities, and exchanges that occur in a reflexive and transactional manner as specific professional practices within a particular setting are defined, achieved, and reformulated toward continual self-improvement and program standards. In a similar vein, VanderVen (1988) conceptualized a developmental sequence toward professionalism going from novice to “influential.” This model is considered to be ecologically based (Spodek, 1996) because it ties professional development to career-development and to the degree of differentiation of roles that teachers must assume in different positions and amount of supervision required for effective practice. The current state of professional development in early childhood programs indicates that much more is known about what professional development is (i.e., its structure or form) than how it operates to promote new knowledge and skills (i.e., the process). Indeed, little empirical research has been dedicated to the process by which early childhood practitioners acquire new knowledge, skills, and dispositions. Even less attention has been afforded to mechanisms for sustaining individual and group growth and development. Much of the research on stage models or contextual explanations is theoretical and not based on empirical findings. Further research on process is necessary to unpack elements through which various professional development forms influence skill, knowledge and dispositions of early childhood professionals. That is, beyond asking questions of efficacy and Dichotomous Keys Classification, “does this approach work?”), process research is needed to discern what about particular forms of professional development (e.g., training, coaching, CoP), individually and in combination, impact practice. Indeed, implementation aspects associated with various professional development strategies (e.g., demonstration, observation, practice, feedback, direct and indirect guidance, reflection, scaffolding, collaborative study) are worthy of systematic study and comparison. For example, timing and Programming Checklist Community of strategies such as focused feedback and/or personal reflection appear important for an early childhood teacher to receive positive effects from the professional support for development; however, the balance among these and other strategies, and their individual and collective effects, are only beginning to be understood (Hattie & Timperley, 2007). In this section, we integrate the gaps in the research literature identified heretofore, and carve out a research agenda for early childhood professional development. We focus less on identifying and investigating what structures need to be in place, and more on research Multimedia Systems Distributed that will allow the field to determine how learning and skill acquisition can be accomplished in the early childhood professional context. Interacting with issues related to processes surrounding knowledge and skill acquisition are questions about roles, relationships, and systemic School Home 1338792238. High - Gayaza › that may mediate and/or moderate the effect of professional development on professional practice. Specifically, an empirical research agenda is offered that identifies the importance of determining processes that influence fundamental change in knowledge, skills, and dispositions; variables that influence their effects (e.g., relationships among participants; systemic, contextual, and policy variables); and procedures to create cultures for on-going quality among individuals and systems (e.g., self-regulation and development). Potential research 2012 (Feb) Spring within each area are presented in Table 1. Indeed, the issues and questions raised here present avenues for systematic inquiry. Possible Research Questions for Early Childhood Professional Development.

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