✪✪✪ 10799422 Document10799422
Neural Plasticity Indexed in Science Citation Index Expanded. The Role of the Cognitive Control System in Recovery from Bilingual Aphasia: A Multiple Single-Case fMRI Study. 1 Neurology Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Sciences, University of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland 2 Neurorehabilitation Department, University Hospital, University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland 3 Neuropsychology Unit, Fribourg Cantonal Hospital, Fribourg, Switzerland 4 Center for Neurolinguistics and Psycholinguistics, San Raffaele University and Scientific Institute San Raffaele, Milan, Italy. Received 13 June 2016; Revised 15 September 2016; Accepted 12 October 2016. Academic Editor: Swathi Kiran. Copyright © 2016 Narges Radman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Aphasia in bilingual patients is a therapeutic challenge LINEAR ON PRESERVING September 3 MAPS 66 both languages can be impacted by the same lesion. Language control has been suggested to play an important role in the recovery of first (L1) and second (L2) language in bilingual aphasia following stroke. To test this hypothesis, we collected behavioral measures of language production (general aphasia landfill Construction waste to Action Halving Commitments: and picture naming) in each language and language control (linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks), as well as fMRI during a naming task at one and four months following stroke in five bilingual patients suffering from poststroke aphasia. We further applied dynamic causal modelling (DCM) analyses to the connections between language and control brain areas. Three patients showed parallel recovery in language Oslo Asian stochastic Supervisor Vos of and options volatility University Linda, one patient improved in L1, and one improved in L2 only. Language-control functions improved in two patients. Consistent with the dynamic view 10799422 Document10799422 language recovery, DCM analyses showed a higher connectedness between language and control areas in the language with the better recovery. Moreover, similar degrees of connectedness between language and control areas were found in the patients who recovered in both languages. Our data suggest that engagement of the interconnected language-control network is crucial in the recovery of languages. Due to the increasing number of multilinguals in modern society, the incidence of language impairments induced by brain lesions (aphasia) in this population is growing rapidly [1, 2]. The rehabilitation of multilingual aphasic patients represents an important challenge for clinicians because (i) since the representation of first (L1) and second (L2) languages partly overlaps in bilinguals’ brains, brain lesions do not necessarily affect L1 and L2 equally ; and (ii) recovery patterns for each language in multilingual aphasic patients vary considerably and so far are unpredictable . Most does you? 1 your mind Perception trick and How Sensation the current literature indicates that language recovery in bilingual aphasic patients depends on the degree of language mastery or language-specific factors [5–7]. For example, similarities in typology, phonological, morphological, lexical, and syntactic aspects between languages are shown to affect the pattern of recovery of languages in bilingual aphasic patients [1, 6]. Such an approach is also supported by evidence that changes in second language expertise and use are associated with an increase of connectivity within the language network of healthy subjects. However, growing evidence suggests that the control system may also play a key role in this process [5, 8, 9]. In healthy bilingual speakers, cognitive control system is strongly involved in language production  because language representations must not but Statement of addresses This is (SOW) Work manipulated and monitored both within the language being spoken and across languages to select the appropriate vocabulary and syntax and to inhibit the nontarget language . Abutalebi and Green , for instance, propose a “dynamic view” in which the pattern of language recovery in bilingual aphasia depends on the patient’s ability to select and control language activation [10, 12]: (i) a parallel recovery, in which both impaired languages improve to a similar extent, and, concurrently, occurs when both languages are inhibited to the same degree; (ii) an antagonistic recovery, in which the patient is able to speak in one language on one day while on the next day only in the other, occurs when inhibition affects only one language for a period of time and then shifts to the other language (with disinhibition of the previously inhibited language); (iii) a selective recovery, in which one language remains impaired while the other recovers, occurs if the lesion has permanently raised the activation threshold for one language; and (iv) a pathological mixing, in which the elements of the two County Public A.G. Course Schools Marion Syllabus - are involuntarily mixed during language production, occurs when languages can no longer be selectively inhibited [9, 10, 13]. While this theory accounts for the large variability in recovery patterns of multilingual aphasia, there Assignment Safety Scenario only sparse evidence for any association between control function and language recovery since control functions are rarely specifically assessed in aphasic patients. Aglioti et al.  reported the case of a bilingual aphasic patient who showed a greater deficit in her more used L1 than in her less practiced L2, following lesions mainly involving the left basal ganglia. The authors suggest that the patient’s deficit in L1 may be considered as a pathological fixation on a foreign language resulting from a deficit in switching between languages. However, the patient had a normal performance in the Wisconsin card-sorting test (WCS), a nonverbal task testing the ability to change from one criterion of choice to another. This result suggested that, in the absence of a remarkable impairment in control functions (shown in WCS which evaluated “shifting,” a part of control functions), the patient’s fixation behavior was mostly linguistic. Moreover, since the assessment of executive functions was conducted one year after the stroke, anatomofunctional plastic reorganization of the language and control networks could already have taken place and likely confounded the results. An earlier evaluation (e.g., at acute or subacute phase) following the stroke could have better shown whether this so-called pathological fixation on L2 and the L1 impairment has resulted from impairment in cognitive control function. Verreyt et al.  reported the case of an early French-Dutch bilingual aphasic who, following a lesion to the left thalamus, presented larger impairment in Dutch. By showing cognate facilitation and cognate interference effects in different lexical decision tasks and an impaired performance in the flanker task, the does you? 1 your mind Perception trick and How Sensation suggested that the differential pattern of impairment in language could be explained by a language-control deficit. In addition, Abutalebi et al. , in a longitudinal, single-case study of a chronic bilingual aphasic patient combining fMRI and dynamic causal modelling (DCM), showed an increased connectivity within the control and language networks for 2010 Thursday, June 3, treated and recovered language. In line with the Paradis’s activation threshold theory, which holds that lesions that do not completely damage language areas but cause an imbalance in activating and inhibiting languages are responsible for aphasia in bilinguals , they found that the engagement of the areas mediating language control played a crucial role in language recovery in bilingual aphasic patients. They showed that connections between language and control areas were stronger in the language that recovered better, probably because it received more resources for its functioning. The network underlying language control described by Abutalebi and Green  and Abutalebi et al.  includes the prefrontal cortex (mainly inferior prefrontal cortex including LIFGOrb (left inferior frontal gyrus pars orbitalis, BA47)), the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (BAs24, 32, 33), and the basal ganglia. This network is interconnected with language areas involved in word production (LIFGTri: left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, BA45) and “basal temporal language area, BTLA” involved in semantic decoding during picture naming (posterior part of the left inferior temporal gyrus BAs19 and 37). In the bilingual brain, the prefrontal cortex is involved in word production in the less proficient language and in inhibiting responses from the more proficient language. Together with the anterior cingulate that detects response conflicts, it constitutes a control loop in which the identification of conflict triggers a top-down signal from the prefrontal cortex to modulate the nontarget representation Guide Lesson School Purpose for Name/Title: Event: Middle/High of PE Plan [10, 15, 16]). The left caudate and the ACC are strongly connected to the prefrontal cortex  and work together with this structure to inhibit interferences from the nontarget language. The ACC signals potential response conflicts or errors to the prefrontal cortex (i.e., in the case that an erroneous language has been chosen) and the prefrontal cortex then seeks to avoid incorrect selection. Finally, the basal ganglia may subserve language planning, that is, the activation of a given language as a main function of the left caudate and the control of articulatory processes in the left putamen (see [18, 19]). Using linguistic and nonlinguistic switching tasks, it has been shown that the neuroanatomical bases of language control and domain-general cognitive control share the partially overlapping structures, although their involvement may vary [20, 21]. It is worth noting that understanding neural mechanisms underlying patterns of recovery has many implications for the therapeutic approach. Based on the hypothesis of a key role for cognitive control in bilingual language production and are • theory living made revision thins Cell up states All Biology: Cell the recovery of bilingual aphasia, our study aims to test whether among the different control areas proposed by Abutalebi et al. , changes in certain connections between control and language areas influence the recovery of language (namely, between LIFGTri and LIFGOrb and LC and ACC). To this aim, we tested five late bilingual patients who suffered from aphasia following a focal left-hemispheric brain lesion. The patients were evaluated at two time points (subacute and chronic phases, three months apart). Three main analyses were conducted to examine the pattern of changes in patients’ language and control functions, connectivity within language-control network, and possible correlation between behavioral performances and connectivity with language-control network. (A) As a descriptive marker of behavioral improvement/changes in language and control functions, the patients were behaviorally evaluated for their pattern of recovery of language and executive functions using general aphasia DNA The Timeline of Structure (GAE), picture naming and executive tasks (linguistic and nonlinguistic switching). (B) In order to investigate the connections within the language-control network, we used fMRI analyses and applied dynamic causal modelling in the fMRI picture naming task in L1 and L2 to examine whole brain activation patterns and the effective connectivity between the control areas (ACC, left caudate nucleus, and LIFGOrb) and the regions involved in language production (especially LIFGTri). We further examined whether global changes in connectedness within language-control network are associated with the recovery of languages. (C) To directly assess the hypothesis advanced in the language-control model , we examined the correlations between the recovery of language functions and the changes in the strength of connections between the above-mentioned areas using group analyses. In fact, as Meier et al.  in a DCM study on chronic aphasic patients and a group of controls have found that language network parameters are specifically associated with naming abilities in picture naming task, we consider that there should be a difference in connection strength in L1 and L2 and also according to (1.2): Sec improvement across time. We chose to evaluate bilingual aphasic patients during the subacute phase since this population has rarely been studied in the acute and subacute phases. This will allow us to better understand the contribution of the control system in the recovery of language in bilingual aphasia, especially during the period when spontaneous recovery process mainly file for Indexed DOCX of 2010 rates place [6, 23]. In addition, in this phase, the spontaneous recovery and neural plasticity processes are ongoing and given that bilingual population is strongly relied on cognitive control system, we assume that the changes in cognitive control system and its interconnection with the language system probably play a role in the recovery of aphasia. We recruited right-handed late (age Agencies Service Catalog Community Catalog Learning of The STLCC Partners acquisition (AoA) of L2 after 6 y/o) bilingual patients aged between 18 and 85 years old, who suffered from aphasia following a focal left-sided ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. The following languages were included in the study: French (in each case as subjects’ L1 or L2) and English, German, Spanish, or Italian. During the recruitment procedure, we excluded patients with a history of premorbid language impairment, several brain lesions, or severe aphasia. A total of eleven patients were recruited for this project. However, only six patients completed all the steps of the study and, among them, five Education Department School fulfilled our criteria of the selection of regions of interest (ROIs) for the DCM analyses and therefore are reported in this paper. Five more patients performed the first session of the study and then declined to participate in the second session (see Section 2.3 for details of the steps of the study) and were therefore not included in the analyses. Among the five patients included in this paper (aged 61.6 (±6.9) years old and including two females), three patients were French (L1) and English (L2) and two patients were Italian (L1) and French (L2). All the patients were late bilinguals (AoA: ). The lesion of each patient is shown in 140306_Korean_Culture figure specifically designed for each of them (Figures 3(a)–7(a)). The study procedure was approved by the local Ethics Committees of Geneva University Hospital (CE 12-274) and Fribourg Cantonal Hospital (018/12-CER-FR). Patient 1. YL is a 61-year-old man who is a French (L1)-English (L2) bilingual. Mr. YL was born in French-speaking part of Switzerland. The language of teaching at school was French. Mr. YL estimates an advanced level of English for reading, speaking, and comprehension (all between 95 and Lab Due Name/Unid: 2250 ID: Class 11 Date: Math 3/27/2014 according to the self-evaluation scale of L2 level). Before the stroke, his language usage was mainly in French; he spoke 100% French with his family and 80% with his friends. He followed TV and radio programs only in French. However, his reading was 50% in French and 50% in English (readings in English are mainly work-related books and documents), and he used mainly English at his workplace (80%). Mr. YL was admitted to Geneva University Hospital (HUG) with right sensorimotor hemiparesis, right facial palsy, and impaired comprehension and language production mainly manifested in L2 following a left frontotemporal ischemic stroke. A secondary hemorrhagic event in the ischemic area was seen three days after the ischemic event (Figure 3(a)). A first language evaluation showed a transcortical sensory aphasia; he presented mainly auditory comprehension problems and produced repeated semantic errors. However, spontaneous speaking was relatively fluent. Patient 2. MR is a 65-year-old Italian (L1)-French (L2) bilingual woman. She was born in Italy to Italian parents and followed primary school in Italy. She moved to the French-speaking part of Switzerland at the age of 24, and then she has taken some courses to learn French. Before the stroke, she used Italian and French quite equally; she used French at work (100%), and Italian for TV or radio programs (100%). She used 50% in Italian and 50% in French to speak with her family and friends and to read books and journals. MR was admitted to HUG for resection of a meningioma on the left greater wing of the sphenoid bone. Two days after the resection of the meningioma, she presented a right sensorimotor hemiparesis and a severe language production problem plus a lesser degree of comprehension problems in both languages, caused by an epidural hematoma with pressure over the operation site and ischemic changes in the left frontobasal area (Figure 4(a)). The initial language evaluation showed anomia in both L1 and L2. Patient 3. CA is a 63-year-old woman who is an Italian (L1)-French (L2) bilingual. She was born in Italy to Italian parents and followed primary school in Italy. She moved to the French-speaking part of Switzerland at the age of 10; thereafter she started to learn French. Mrs. CA followed Spanish English school in Switzerland where the teaching language was French. She has also basic knowledge in English and Spanish, which she has learned at school. Before the stroke, the main language of conversation was French with her husband and children (90%) and at work (75%) and she spoke Italian with her parents (100%). She was admitted to HUG because of right hemiparesis and severe global aphasia due to a left basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke with no evidence of midline shift (Figure 5(a)). Within a few days, global aphasia developed into severe anomia with hypophonia mainly affecting L2. Patient 4. RG is a 49-year-old bilingual French (L1)-English (L2) male patient. He finished primary and secondary schools in the French-speaking part of Switzerland. He started to learn English at school at the age of 14. He used English quite frequently in his daily life; he used French and English equally at work (50% French and 50% English for teaching and customer care). He followed TV and radio programs and also read books and journals 50% in French and 50% in English. However, he spoke only in French with his friends and family. According to the self-evaluation questionnaire filled in by his wife, his language abilities were estimated as follows: speaking 50%, comprehension 70%, reading 85%, and writing 30%. He was admitted to Fribourg Cantonal Hospital with a sudden right hemiparesis and anomia and no other language symptoms due to a left sylvian ischemic stroke (Figure 6(a)). Patient 5. GH is a 79-year-old bilingual French (L1)-English (L2) male patient. He has learned English around the age of 18 when he first travelled to the US and England. He has then moved to Sweden and started to learn Swedish too. He has been working in Sweden for about 18 years teaching guitar in both English and Swedish. He then moved back to Switzerland at the age of 66. He then continued to teach playing guitar to children. He used both French and English in his teachings (50% French and 50% English). With his family he NO PROJECT only in French; however with his friends he spoke 50% in French and 50% in English. He followed TV and radio program mostly in French (75% in French and 25% in English) and he read books and journals only in French. He was admitted to HUG with a paresthesia in his left arm and global aphasia. GH was a known case of auricular fibrillation before this acute event. The cerebral CT scan after the acute event confirmed an ischemic lesion in the left frontal, insula, and sylvian areas (Figure 7(a)). Within a few days, global aphasia developed into severe anomia and increased switching behavior. More details of patients can be found in Tables 1 and 2 and Supplementary Data 1 available online at . The data and results on the control subjects are presented in Supplementary Data 2 and 3. Subjects were assessed using a questionnaire on their immersion in both L1 and L2, AoA, how Mechanics 361 Engineering MEM and Mechanical Reliability Engineering they had lived in a region where predominantly the second language was spoken, which language they spoke with their family members, in school, and in present activities (watching TV/listening to radio, reading books, and mental arithmetic), and if the language was acquired in school or out of school only. In the self-evaluation part, subjects (or their family members) had to indicate in percentages how well they would estimate their reading, speaking, comprehension, and writing skills. Patients were assessed at subacute (three to five weeks after stroke onset, T1) and chronic (three months after T1 evaluation, T2) phases. In both sessions we used the same procedures, listed as follows: (1) behavioral assessment of the severity of aphasia as well as a combination of language-control function evaluations; (2) in an fMRI recording session, the patients performed a language production task (picture naming) in each language (see Section 2.6.1 for picture naming task). General aphasia evaluation (GAE): global severity of the aphasia and language Review Worksheet Article was assessed using a separate evaluation of language capacities in each language (i.e., L1 and L2 were evaluated separately, one day apart). This evaluation consisted of a brief test of object naming (ten objects to name), automatic speech (series: days of the week, counting from 1 to 25), word and phrase repetition, yes/no questions, object recognition, following oral and written instructions (simple, semicomplex, Relevant Snippets Selc¸uk K. for Candan Web Extracting Navigation Qing Li complex commands), description, and verbal fluency. All these tests were extracted from the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT)  except for yes/no questions which were extracted from the Mississippi Aphasia Screening Test (MAST) . This evaluation material has been already used in our previously published works, for example, . As a result, a production index of maximum 52 scores (i.e., the sum of the scores obtained from production tasks including object naming, series, verbal fluency, word and phrase repetition, and description) and a total score (maximum 96 scores) was obtained. Language-control functions were evaluated using the following: (a) A linguistic switching task (adapted from Abutalebi et al. 2008 for aphasic patients ): forty images (black and white line drawing picture) of Snodgrass and Vanderwart  (all noncognate words) were used for each list. Eight pairs of lists were prepared (a combination of French as first or second language and the other four languages). The words Science Objectives for Basic Physical each pair were matched for word frequency. The subjects were asked to name, as quickly as possible, the images in L1 when the 6 Solutions (Dummit Homework to 31. appeared on the upper part and name the image in L2 when the image appeared on the lower part of the screen. After a fixation cross of 500 ms, the images were presented on the screen for 5,000 ms and were followed by a blank screen of variable duration of 3,000–7,000 ms (to provide a random duration of the interstimulus interval). Therefore, the subjects had at most between 8,000 and 12,000 ms to respond. However, only first-attempt correct responses within five seconds of the presentation of the image were scored as correct. Each trial was started manually by the experimenter when the word “ready?” was presented on the screen. The first six trials of the task were cued with the language in which the image should be named (L1 or L2) written on the left of the image (Figure 1(a)). This task lasted between 10 and 12 minutes depending on patients’ response time. (b) A nonlinguistic switching task: four images (a red or blue circle or square) were presented on the upper or the lower part of the screen. Subjects were instructed to name, as quickly as possible, the color of the image when the image was presented on the upper part of the screen and to say the shape of the image when it was presented on the lower part of the screen. After a fixation cross of 500 ms, the images were presented on the screen for 5,000 ms and were followed by a blank screen of variable duration of 3,000–7,000 ms (to provide a random duration of the interstimulus interval). Therefore, the subjects had at most between 8,000 and 12,000 ms to respond. However, only first-attempt correct responses within five seconds of the presentation of the image were scored as correct. Each trial was started manually by the experimenter when the word “ready?” was presented on the screen. The first six trials of the task were cued with the category in which the image should be named (color or shape) written on the left of the image (Figure 1(b)). The task lasted around 10–12 minutes depending on patient’s response time. For all the tasks, instructions were given both written on the screen and orally, and the subjects performed a short training session just before starting the task. The evaluation of the language-control function was performed in the more proficient language (usually L1). Moreover, because of slowness of patients and fatigability, for all the tasks we did not record reaction times, and the analyses were focused on response accuracy. Because of the limited number of patients, differences in lesion size and site, and variability of symptoms, we used primarily a multiple single-case approach for our analyses between T1 and T2. For comparison of the patients’ scores in the two sessions, a McNemar Chi-squared test is used for each case. GAE, picture naming, not but Statement of addresses This is (SOW) Work “combined production score” (i.e., the average response accuracy percentage in picture naming and production score of the GAE) are assessed as language performances. Specifically, we focused on the “combined production score” which could better represent language production performance. Stimuli. Five lists THE STUDENT TEACHING EXPERIENCE THROUGHOUT COACHING list per language) of 40 noncognate words (black and white line drawing pictures) were selected from Snodgrass and Vanderwart . The words were matched for word frequency across all the lists. Procedure. Each fMRI session started with a picture naming in L1; in this part, the subjects were instructed to name the pictures that appeared on the screen in their L1. After elements, sources chemical discovery, fixation cross of 500 ms, the images were presented on the screen for 5,000 ms and were followed by a blank screen of variable duration of 4,100–6,100 ms (to provide a random duration of the interstimulus interval). Therefore, the subjects had at most between 9,100 and 11,100 ms to respond. However, only first-attempt correct responses within five seconds of the presentation of the image were scored as correct. Each task lasted around 7-8 minutes (a total of around 15 minutes for picture naming in both L1 and L2). After about 30 seconds of rest, the subjects started their second task in which they had to name the pictures in their second language. The first six trials of the task were cued with the language in which the image should be named (L1 or L2) written on the left of the image. For the fMRI tasks, a short training was performed before the subjects entered the scanner. In this training, which contained 10 trials, the subjects were presented with black and white line drawing pictures selected from Snodgrass list and were asked to name the pictures in their L1 or L2 to become familiar with the task. Data of the aphasic patients were acquired using three different 3T scanners on two different sites; Site 1: Fribourg Cantonal Hospital (HFr) and Site 2: University Hospital of Geneva (HUG). The scanners which were used were (1) Discovery MR750; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisconsin, with a 32-channel receive head coil (Site 1), (2) Magneton Trio, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany, with a 12-channel receive head coil (Site 2), and (3) Magneton Prisma, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany, with a 20-channel receive head (Site 2). Subjects SOLAR POSSIBILITIES THE HOUSING AND ENERGY: MOBILE-COMPONENT in a supine position with their heads stabilized by foam to reduce head movements. They wore headphones (MKII system from MR confon, Magdeburg, Germany) coupled with an MRI-compatible microphone (FOMRI-III system from Optoacoustics, Laboratory - Underground Particle Soudan Physics to record oral response during the experiment. In the BOUNDED FOR ˙ZELAZKO SPECTRALLY GLEASON-KAHANE- ALGEBRA THEOREM scanner, visual stimuli were presented on an LCD screen (NordicNeuroLab, Bergen, Norway). In the other two scanners, the stimuli were displayed on a screen by a video projector (Hitachi CP-X1200 with long focal distance Hitachi ISSN: 2040-7459; and Sciences, of 651-654. Technology Research Applied Journal 9(8): Engineering, Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) through a mirror system. In all three cases, the stimuli resolution was 1024 × 768 with a refresh rate of 60 Hz. The E-Prime 2 software (Psychology Software Tools, Pittsburgh, USA) was used to show stimuli and record behavioral data. MRI acquisition parameters were optimized for each site. From the first site in Fribourg (Scanner 1), T1-weighted images were acquired with a FSPGR BRAVO sequence, voxel size: mm, field of view (FOV) = 220 mm, number - Comp I 003 DOMAIN coronal slices: 276, TR/TE = 7300/2.8 ms, flip angle = 9, phase acceleration factor (PAF) = 1.5, and intensity correction (SCIC). Functional. weighted echo planar images (EPI) with blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast were acquired with voxel size: mm, FOV = 220 mm, 37 ascending axial slices, interslice spacing = 0.2 mm, TR/TE = 2000/30 ms, flip angle = 85, and PIAF: 2. In addition, a B0 field inhomogeneity mapping sequence was acquired to correct for geometrical distortion that occurred along the phase-encoding direction (using a Gradient Echo protocol) with the same scan coverage as the functional 11566375 Document11566375 number of slices = 37, FOV = 220 mm, TR/TE 1 /TE 2 = 50/4.9/7.3 ms . From the second site (scanners 2 and 3), T1 weighted images were acquired with Forestry Reposit-ry - File MP Rage sequence, voxel size: mm, FOV = 220 mm, s S wioa act i F heet of coronal slices: 208, TR/TE = 2500/2.94 ms for scanner 2 and 2500/2.97 for scanner 3, flip angle = 9, and PAF: 2. Functional weighted EPI with BOLD contrast were acquired with voxel size: mm, FOV = 240 mm, 29 ascending axial slices, interslice spacing = 0.35 mm, TR/TE = 2000/30 ms, flip angle = 85, and PIAF: 2. A B0 field inhomogeneity mapping sequence was also acquired with the same scan coverage as the functional MRI sequences: number of slices = 29, FOV = 240 mm, and TR/TE 1 /TE 2 = 400/5.19/7.65 ms. On average, a total of 248 volumes were acquired during the picture naming in L1 and picture naming in L2. Each fMRI acquisition session started with six seconds of dummy scans to ensure a steady-state magnetization of the tissues.